There has been a lot of debate regarding the age of the Pyramids of Giza. His name may refer to the scorpion goddess Serket. How the Pyramids were built is a source of speculation and debate. The age of the Pyramids of Giza is an uncertainty, as archaeologists cannot place the construction of these incredible monuments to a specific date. Some researchers have come forward claiming that the Pyramids of Giza are much older than we think.
We are told that the region has not suffered such downfalls since at least 3, BC, which places the original dig long enough before that time to create such resulting erosion. Egyptologist John Anthony West argued that the sudden rise of Egyptian civilization in the third millennium BC points to the fact that it was not a new development but a legacy - a carry-over from an earlier, lost civilization.
Further evidence of a pre-dynastic construction phase is suggested by the Sphinx Temple, 'Khafre's' Mortuary and Valley Temples, and 'Menkaure's' Mortuary Temple, which were all partly built from huge limestone blocks, weighing hundreds of tons removed during the carving of the Sphinx, and which have suffered similar erosional damage.
No other site in Egypt shows the same type or degree of erosion. More about the Sphinx. Abydoss The Osireion :. I t has been pointed out that there is a similarity in construction between the Valley Temple and the Osireion. In consideration of this particular observation at Giza, we can see that the Valley temple was built in a particular style that can only be seen in one other site in Egypt, namely the Osireion at Abydoss, which was also enclosed from the outside and built from cyclopean masonry.
Like the megalithic Giza temples, the Osireion is characterized by stark simplicity, and is devoid of sculptures and decoration. Both are considered to be amongst the earliest in Egypt. Both structures are made from large, unadorned lintelled pillars. Two rows with five pillars in each, run along the central chamber.
Both structures were covered over, and both were associated with the Nile. W e are reminded that while the Osireion was dedicated to Osiris, the Sphinx and associated temples are associated with Isis. More about Abydoss and the Osireion. Archaeo-astronomy at Giza:. The coordinates of the stars as viewed from earth gradually change over the course of time, an observation which has enabled us date the construction of several ancient structures. One of the main causes of this is the precession of the equinoxes, a cycle lasting an average of 25, years, which results from the fact that the earth's axis slowly sweeps an approximate circle around the poles of the ecliptic the places in the heavens to which the ends of the axis would point if it was perfectly upright instead of being tilted.
If precession were the only factor involved, stars would appear to return to exactly the same position every 25, years. But there are two further factors to take into account. Firstly, all stars, including our own sun together with its family of planetsare undergoing their own 'proper motion' through space.
Secondly, the tilt of the earth's axis varies. At present the tilt is They theorize that the tilt oscillates between about According to theosophy, on the other hand, the axis gradually inverts through a full degreesat an average rate of 4 degrees every processional cycle 55 arc-seconds per centuryand therefore traces not a circle but a spiral around the poles of the ecliptic.
There is still confusion at the top. More about the Precession of the Equinoxes. The Orientation of the Polar Passage. We can conclude that the alignment to the polar passage was an important feature of Early Dynasty Pyramid building and is therefore of the utmost importance in dating the Great pyramid of Giza.
The first attempt to date the pyramid astronomically was by the astronomer Sir John Hershel, who calculated that the polar star at the time of building was Alpha Draconisthe Dragon Star.
This would have been seen at its best at around BC 6. The Astronomer, A. Proctorstated that the pole star would have aligned with the polar-passage only at either 2, BC or 3, BC, "with a probable limit of error of not more than years either way, and perhaps of only 50 years". This information is one of the most remarkably undervalued proofs of the age of the Great Pyramid. As Radio-carbon dating has conclusively proven that the pyramids were built long before the 2, BC date, we are left with only one conclusion: Namely that the pyramid construction or design must have been at the earlier date of 3, BC.
A fact which coincides perfectly with the data from the Radio-carbon dating of the Giza complex As seen above.
Davidson 2reminds us that Prof Smyth also calculated that the perpendicular from the entrance Passage slope at 2, BC, and at the autumnal Equinoctial midnight was directed to the star Alcyone of Pleiades. He also adds that ' It is a remarkable fact that the Euphratean tradition seems to identify Alcyone with the ceremony of foundation-laying An alternative, more elaborate theory has been developed by Robert Bauval.
He shows that the relative positions of the three main Giza pyramids match those of the three stars of Orion's Belt, and that the match would have been most precise around 10, BC, when Orion last reached its lowest point in the sky as part of its periodic ascent and descent resulting from precession. He argues that the Giza site was laid out and the Sphinx carved at this time the Age of Leo.
But he contends that the Great Pyramid was not built until around 2, BC, about years after the accepted dates for Khufu, because at about that time the northern shafts in the King's and Queen's Chambers pointed at Thuban in Draco and Kochab in Ursa Minor respectively, while the southern shafts pointed at Alnitak in Orion's Belt and Sirius in Canis Major.
In order to 'iron out' the problems of astronomy Vs theory book salesBauval dates the construction of at least the upper portion of the Great Pyramid conventionally, based on the calculated alignment of the southern air shaft of the Queens Chamber with Sirius, and the southern air shafts of the King's Chamber with Zeta Orionis, c BC. He also claims that the northern air shaft of the King's Chamber aligned with Alpha Draconis during that same period, while the northern shaft of the Queen's Chamber is supposed to have aligned with Kochab in Ursa Minor.
Bauval's date is also in agreement with Mark Lehner's carbon dating of quarry marks found above the King's Chamber. Thus the c 2, BC date looks very good - However Bauval produced three publications after Gantenbrink's discovery.
Two articles in the "open" journal Discussions in EgyptologyNo. And all three publications had different values. Shaft Inc. Bauval Inc. Bauval confirms calculations with references to "Epochs" which he never completely explains.
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And he doesn't calculate exact matches, but talks of "good confirmation of the epoch BC". But what is the definition of a "good confirmation"? Either there is a match, or there isn't. These "Epochs" are a further source of confusion - they don't match! After comparing the values in two English versions of Bauval's book with the German edition by Knaur and the values in DEthese are the resulting epochs:. Shaft Epoch Knaur Ep. If we use the 'scientific' formulas to calculate these alignments, and take into account not only the stars' proper motion across the sky, but also their motion towards or away from our own solar system, we find that the southern shaft of the King's Chamber was aligned with Alnitak in 2, BC while the northern shaft of the Queen's Chamber was aligned with Kochab years later.
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Only two conclusions are possible: either the Pyramid's builders made an error despite the incredible accuracy displayed in other features of the buildingor these particular alignment dates tell us nothing whatsoever about when the Pyramid was built. Rainer Lorenz, once interviewed Rudolf Gantenbrink for a newspaper article.
In this interview Gantenbrink did not speak well of Bauval, because he had given him this values explicitly as Bauval had requested of him several times on the phone. Consequently, he had been very angry when Bauval had used these grossly wrong values and had asked himself, and Rainer, why he had done this?
Well, that's the end of "Dating Giza with the star-passages". After some harsh exchanges Bauval presented a solution in the Autumn of He had never used all three stars and particularly not Menkaure's pyramid. He had worked with the diagonal of the other two pyramids, and they fitted. In a flash Bauval re-evluated the structure. Now it's a great symbolic representation which needs not be precise to the last degree.
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Everyone could easily see the meaning of the structure. After he posted several messages like this on bulletin boards in early he was asked how he could get a precise date out of a now symbolic representation. No answer was forthcoming.
Davidson 2 reminds us that there were two zodiacal systems. The division of the zodiac into 12 signs, however, shows a processional origin of 4, BC. So what about another date? InSir Norman Lockyer made claims in his book, ' The Dawn of Astronom y', that many ancient Egyptian temples appeared to have been aligned to the sun at the solstices or equinoxes.
While his methods were heretical, such dates were not necessarily out of line with those of mainstream Egyptologists. Lockyer and many others scholars of his time had a more expanded chronology than the one around which the modern consensus has formed. Even now, his conclusions are not truly accepted, although as time passes, they appear to be gaining acceptance.
Extract from Fix: ' In F. This paper is a description of a survey to find precise orientation of a survey to find the precise orientation of the long temple axis and to thus test Lockyear's theory. Richards dismissed the idea that it was orientated to the setting sun at solstice. The 'Second' Pyramid of Giza is unique in having two northern entrances.
Carbon dating dating pyramids Experts use scientific pyramids the oldest and have found in dating hellenic pyramids of giza. No absolute dating has long been carbon dating giza and more than egypt? Strength and why, could have been great on the middle east, of djoser in modern history. NOVA Online's interviews with two experts reveal the results of recent carbon dating on the pyramids, and shed further light on the process Egyptologists must go through to decipher the age of. 'Carbon dating might be wrong by 10, years' However, even if the radiocarbon dates for the 15 samples from the Great Pyramid that were tested are assumed to be reasonably accurate, it is argued that there is still no certainty that they tell us its original age.
This has been read as a sign of duality, and has been linked to Gemini. The bottom few courses of this pyramid, up to a height of about 30 feet, are built of gigantic blocks, similar to the core masonry blocks used in the megalithic Giza temples, which were quarried from around the Sphinx.
Since the temple alongside the Second Pyramid is linked to a temple near the Sphinx by a causeway, it has been suggested that the lower part of the pyramid was possibly built at the same time as the Sphinx. Several writers, including the astronomer Sir Norman Lockyer, have suggested that the Sphinx is half lion, half virgin, and symbolizes the junction of the constellations Leo and Virgo it also symbolizes the supremacy of the spiritual self over the animal.
Significantly, at the same time as the summer solstice passes from Virgo into Leo, the spring equinox passes from Gemini into Taurus. The last time this event occurred was around years ago. Personal I nvestigations :. The Sun.
Orion's belt. Visible - sunset There are no other possibilities at these dates, unless they are extended or the stars changed. Orion's belt - 4, BC 1. More about Archaoastronomy.
Flood 'Events':. The Greeks wrote of two great floods, which they called Deucalion and Ogyges. Another possible source for dating the Great Pyramid may be found in sediments surrounding the base of the monument, in legends regarding watermarks on the stones halfway up its sides, and in salt incrustations found within. Silt sediments rising to fourteen feet around the base of the pyramid were found to contain seashells and fossils that have been radiocarbon-dated at nearly twelve thousand years old.
These sediments could only have been deposited in such great quantities by major sea flooding; an event the dynastic Egyptians could never have recorded because they were not living in the area until thousands of years after the flood. In support of this ancient flood scenario, there is a legend that a watermark was clearly visible on the limestone casing stones of the Great Pyramid before the stones were removed by the Arabs. These watermarks were halfway up the sides of the pyramid, or about feet above the present level of the Nile River.
Further, when the Great Pyramid was first opened, incrustations of salt an inch thick were found inside. While much of this salt is known to be natural exudation from the stones of the pyramid, chemical analysis has shown that some of the salt has a mineral content consistent with salt from the sea. These salt incrustations, found at a height corresponding to the water level marks left on the exterior, are further evidence that at some time in the distant past the pyramid was partially submerged.
The following is from the book 'Eden in the East' by S. The oceanographic record shows that since the end of the last ice-age, the sea level rose at least metres with three distinct periods of flooding on the following dates'. Over this area, from 7, - 5, Yrs. Royal Cemetery of Ur. In addition to the written records, there is substantial visible evidence of inundation surrounding the Sphinx enclosure see above.
More about The Flood Myth. The Piri-Reis Map:. It was dated 'Muharran' in the Moslem year AD. In one of the legends on the side, it stated that a part of it had been mapped using a map by Columbus. It also declared that the map was composed of about twenty maps, some drawn in the time of Alexander the great, and that some were based on mathematics.
The map was then shown to Capt H. Mallory, who studied it and concluded that the coastline of Antarctic was represented in the map. The 'Dulcert' portelano ofwas found to have used the same pattern of lines as the Piri-reis map and it was determined that most of the middle-age portolano's are ' almost unaltered copies of the same original '. The source of these maps was traced back to the Phoenicians bypassing the Middle-age, Arab, or Greek map-makers. In order to test these claimsthe map were put through a series of mathematical and geographical tests which showed that the map makers had used a system of cartography that was simple, yet as effective as ours today called the 'Twelve wind' system ' which appears to stem from the furthest antiquity '.
The system produced an 8x8 grid around which a circle was drawn. By moving along the horizontal lines, one could measure latitude, and by moving along vertical lines, longitude. It was an ancient equivalent of Mercator's projection'. On further examination it was determined that trigonometry had been used to assist in the creation of accurate measurements. This was determined through the awareness that the circumference of the world had been over-estimated unless trigonometry was applie and that this figure was close to that predicted by Eratoshenes suggesting that the calculations had been based on an early copy of these maps, which unknowingly included spherical trigonometry.
It is important to note that the focus of the map was in the Giza region and that the maps were made with sophisticated understanding and application of higher mathematics. The twelve wind system:. The Piri-ries map was composed using an ancient system of cartography that involved the division of a circle from an original multiple of degrees.
This fact relates the system to Babylonian science in which the Babylonians had a numbering system based on sixty and on decimals. The Babylonians also had the zodiac, with twelve signs of 30 degrees separation between each.
The twelve-wind system produces a 6x6 grid from divisions of 24 arcs of 15 degrees each - The eight-wind system produces a 4x4 grid from 8 arcs of The Greek geographer Timosthenes, an immediate predecessor to Eratosthenes employed it. The later was said to have abandoned it in favour of the eight-wind system, because it was too difficult for mariners.
It is interesting to note that the 8x8 grid made of the first 64 numbersin its 'Magic square' form, represents Mercury Hermes, Thothwhich is also the planet ascribed the Pyramids by J.
Each planet associated to a different 'Ancient wonder of the world'. This number, used as a circumference, will create a pyramid with exactly the same dimensions of the Great pyramid.
In conclusion, the 8x8 grid that is used in the design of Giza is the same as that used in the construction of ancient navigational charts. The same grid produces the 12 x 30 degree arcs of the Sumerians, and the oldest maps using this system appear to have centred on Cairo and been made between 13, and 4, BC. During this time period, Earth was subjected to a metre sea level rise, consisting of three flood phases as explored below.
The Sumerians disappeared along with other culturesat the end of this time frame. More about the Piri-reis map. The World Mountain :. On a final note, it seems only reasonable that if the Giza pyramids are older than 4, years old 2, BCthen there ought to be a record of them.
The Great Pyramid has been carbon dated by dating some of the mortar in the layer below the outer stones. A guy named Mike Lehrner crawled over the outside of the pyramid finding stones that had been slightly mis-cut and had parts filled in with mortar, and scraped some . Old friends and supporters of the deceased psychic had visited Giza in the early s and several of them were willing to put their beliefs to the test by radiocarbon dating the Great Pyramid. Archaeologists believe it is the work of the Old Kingdom Dynasty 4 society that rose to prominence in the Nile Valley from ca. B.C. and built the. The radiocarbon dates for the Great Pyramid that were performed in studies in the 's ranged from to BC. Researchers have had a difficult time dating the Pyramids of Giza since radiocarbon dating cannot be applied to stone, but can date fragments of organic material found in the vicinity of these ancient constructions.
As writing only developed at approximately 3, BC, it ought not be too difficult to find it in myth and legend; Which is exactly what we do see in the earliest surviving Sumerian literature. We can find references to a 'World mountain' from several myths from round the ancient world.
Amongst the numerous references to world mountains in ancient myth, the following seem relevant to this essay Both Egyptians and Sumerians derive their cultures from a common but ancient source.
Gilgamesh reaches Mount 'Mashi' or 'Sunset hill'. A Dark tunnel pierces it. It was a mountain with twin peaks into which the sun descends at nightfall. These Babylonian 'Temple towers' were symbols of the 'world-hill' - Babylonian myths.
For example, the great boat that was found just south of the Great Pyramid, which we think belongs to Khufu, that was radiocarbon dated-coming out about 2, B.C. Great pyramid is an ancient egyptian chronology is a mere radio carbon dating of khufu also known pharaohs of bc. It is an ancient egyptian chronology is widespread in carbon dated. Similarly, seven samples of the great example of the uncertainty in the mortar used on the great pyramid is carved out of pyramid. Jun 17, Image caption The Step Pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara is the oldest stone pyramid in Egypt. Experts have used scientific dating techniques to verify the historical chronology of ancient Egypt.
The 'Pyramid texts' state that the goal of a pharaoh after death is 'The duat'. In the land of the mountain gods. He has to enter the ' house of two truths ', ' the house of fire '. Reachable by entering a mountain and going down hidden paths and secret doors etc.
The Babylonian 'Temple Towers were symbols of the world hill. The pyramid has been referred to as the 'Bible in Stone', by a number of people. The most seemingly appropriate references from the bible are: 'Isaiah. Ch 19, Seiss 15notes that the word ' Alter' in Hebrew, translates as ' The lion of God '. Ezekiel describes an alter as ' The mountain of God '. Some people find the passage in Job. Who aid the measure thereof, if thou knowest?
Whereupon are the foundations fastened or who laid the cornerstone thereof.?
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There is also much reference to 'Jesus' being the 'Head Cornerstone' of the religion. Sitchin refers to the E. KUR, meaning 'House which is like a Mountain'. He provides several sumerian seals which depict the E. More about the World Mountain in Myth. The chronology of Egyptian pharaohs has been compiled from various sources. The exact chronology has evaded us. What we have is incomplete. The radiocarbon dates for the Great pyramid ranged from 2, to 3, BC.
Other Giza sites gave similar readings. The 'Beetle exfoliate' and the 'Wooden staff' from the star shaft have yet to be carbon-dated. The weathering of the Sphinx enclosure walls suggests that it is far older than is currently believed. Some of the larger limestone blocks show disproportional weathering to the others at Giza.
The Osireion at Abydos also has unmarked cyclopean masonry. It is associated with the earliest dynasties. The division of the zodiac from 6 to 12 signs shows a processional origin of 4, BC. Lockyer calculated the age of the Sphinx at about 4, BC. Virgo-Leo on Summer solstice. The bottom few courses of Khafre's pyramid are built of cyclopean blocks. The 'Kings' chamber is similar is shape to a Djedt.
Rarely do we have people from thousands of years ago who are writing, who are signing confessions. So there's no one easy way that we know what the date of the pyramids happens to be. It's mostly by context. The pyramids are surrounded by cemeteries of other tombs. In these tombs we find bodies. Sometimes we find organic materials, like fragments of reed, and wood, wooden coffins. We find the bones of the people who lived and were buried in these tombs. All that can be radiocarbon dated, for example.
But primarily we date the pyramids by their position in the development of Egyptian architecture and material culture over the broad sweep of 3, years. So we're not dealing with any one foothold of factual knowledge at Giza itself.
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We're dealing with basically the entirety of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology. NOVA: Can you give us an example of a single ct of material culture, from ancient Egypt that you might use as a starting point for dating the pyramids? All the pottery you find at Giza looks like the pottery of the time of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure, the kings who built these pyramids in what we call the Fourth Dynasty, the Old Kingdom.
We study the pottery and how it changes over the broad sweep, some 3, years. There are people who are experts in all these different periods of pottery or Egyptian ceramics.
So to bring it down to a level that almost anybody can understand, if, for example, you were digging around the base of the Empire State Building, assuming that it was a ruin and the streets around it in Manhattan were filled with dirt, and you started finding ceramics that were characteristic of the Elizabethan era or say the Colonial period here in the United States, that would be one thing. But if you started finding the Styrofoam cups and the plastic utensils of the nearby delicatessen, then you would know by virtue of their position in the overall material culture of the 20th century that that's probably a good date for the Empire State Building.
Of course then you'd look at the Empire State Building's style and you'd compare it to the Chrysler Building, and you'd compare it to the Citicorp Building, which is considerably different.
And you'd work out the different styles in the evolution of Manhattan itself. But by and large, you would, in the broad scope, be able to put the Empire State Building and Manhattan in an overall context of development here in the United States and in the modern 19th and 20th centuries.
Naquatica: Bosnia Pyramid Carbon Dated 25 Thousand Years Old
And you would know that it didn't date, for example, to the colonial period of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, because nothing you'd find in the Empire State Building ruins, around it, in the dirt surrounding it-maybe it's a stump sticking up above the sloping ruins of Manhattan-nothing really looks like the flowing blue china, or the other kinds of utensils and material culture that they used in the time of the American Revolution.
So it's hard to give a succinct answer to that question, because we date things in archaeology on the basis of its context and a broad mass of information and material culture-things that were used by people, styles, and so on. NOVA: When it comes to carbon dating, do you need organic material? There has been radiocarbon dating, or carbon dating done in Egypt obviously before we did our studies, and it's been done on some material from Giza.
For example, the great boat that was found just south of the Great Pyramid, which we think belongs to Khufu, that was radiocarbon dated-coming out about 2, B. NOVA: But how do you carbon date the pyramids themselves when they're made out of stone, an inorganic material?
And as you say, you need organic material in order to do carbon dating, because all living creatures, every living thing takes in carbon during its lifetime, and stops taking in carbon when it dies.
And then the carbon starts breaking down at a regular rate. So in effect, you're counting the carbon in an organic specimen. And by virtue of the rate of disintegration of carbon atoms and the amount of carbon in a sample, you can know how old it is.
So how do you date the pyramids, because they're made out of stone and mortar? Well, in the s when I was crawling around on the pyramids, as I used to like to do and still do, I noticed that contrary to what many guides tell people, even the stones of the Great Pyramid of Khufu are put together with great quantities of mortar.
We're looking, you see, at the core. A pyramid is basically, most basically, two separate constructions: it's an outer shell of very fine polished limestone with great accuracy in its joints, but most of that's missing; and the other construction is the inner core, which filled in this shell.
Since most of the outer casing is missing what you see now is the step-like structure of the core. The core was made with a substantial slop factor, as my friend who is a mechanic likes to say about certain automobiles.
That is, they didn't join the stones very accurately. You have great spaces between the stones. And you can actually see where the men were up there and they didn't, you know, they may have like four or five, even six inches between two stones.
And so they'd jam down pebbles and cobbles and some broken stones, and slop big quantities of gypsum mortar in there. I noticed that in the interstices between the stones and in this mortar was embedded organic material, like charcoal, probably from the fire that they used to heat the gypsum in order to make the mortar.
You have to heat raw gypsum in order to dehydrate it, and then you rehydrate it in order to make the mortar, like with modern cement. So it occurred to me that if we could take these small samples, we could radiocarbon date them, not with conventional radiocarbon dating so much, but recently there's been a development in carbon dating where they use atomic accelerators to count the disintegration rate of the carbon atoms, atom by atom.
So you can date extraordinarily small samples. So we set up a program to do that. And it involved us climbing all over the Old Kingdom pyramids, including the ones at Giza, taking as much in the way of organic samples as we could.
We weren't damaging the pyramids, because these are tiny little flecks and it's a very strange experience to be crawling over a monument as big as Khufu's, looking for a bit of charcoal that might be as big as the fingernail on your small finger.
We noted, not only the samples of charcoal, sometimes there was reed. Now and then in some of the pyramids we found little bits of wood. But we saw in many places, even on the giant pyramids of Giza, the first pyramid and the second pyramid and the third one, fragments of tools, bits of pottery that are clearly characteristic of the Old Kingdom.
And it occurred to us, you know, these are not just objects, these, the pyramids themselves were archaeological sites during the time they were being built. If it took 20 years to build them-and now we begin to think that Khufu may have reigned double the length of time that we traditionally assign him-if people were building the Great Pyramid over three decades, it was an occupied site as long as some camp sites that hunters and gatherers occupied that archaeologists dig out in the desert.